1. make someone feel tender emotions including love, sadness, or empathy, e.g. to make someone love someone/something so much that it makes it them sad, or to love someone/something so much that it hurts
2. a genre of traditional songs that can inspire such feelings
Amazonian Kichwa – 60,000 speakers, Ecuador
Derived from adding a the causative morpheme -chi to the verb llakina, to love / to be sad. The notions of love and sadness are intricately intertwined in this language.
One may feel llakichina for not just other people but also for infants and animals. An infant or baby animal may induce llakichina as its relatively pathetic and helpless state – being unable to care for itself – may make one feel sad and love at the same time. See the following citation for more information:
Nuckolls, J. B., & Swanson, T. D. (2018). Respectable uncertainty and pathetic truth in Amazonian Quichua-speaking culture. In J. Proust & M. Fortier (Eds.), Metacognitive Diversity: An Interdisciplinary Approach (pp. 171–192). https://doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780198789710.001.0001
Source: Nuckolls, J. B., & Swanson, T. D. (2020). Amazonian Quichua language and Life: Introduction to grammar, ecology, and discourse patterns from Pastaza and Upper Napo Speakers. Lanham: Lexington Books.
Credits: Tod D. Swason, Janis B. Nuckolls, Alexander Rice.
coolness after overheating; feeling of returned mental clarity after one's body temperature lowers
Western Pantar – 10,000 speakers, East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia
Pantar Island has few sources of potable water, and work and travel during the dry season can lead to heat exhaustion, including fatigue, dizziness, and faintness. Once overheated, without access to water, one must wait in the shade or relative coolness of evening for one's body temperature to lower. This subtle and gradual cooling is accompanied by a returned mental clarity and almost euphoric sense of well being, known as tummang.
Tummang is an experiencer verb which takes a patientive pronoun. Thus, one cannot initiate tummang; rather, tummang is something that happens, beyond the speaker's control. Naing tummang. 'I have cooled down' (with the implication that I have come out of my stupor and am ready to get on with my work).
Source: Holton and Lamma Koly (2008). Kamus Pengantar Bahasa Pantar Barat.
Credits: Mahalalel Lamma Koly, Gary Holton
The uneasy feeling that one's insides are being displaced, such as when looking down from a height, sitting in a fast-moving vehicle going over hilly terrain, or being in the presence of a member of the opposite sex.
Galo – approx 60,000 speakers – C. Arunachal Pradesh, Northeast India
Galo is a Trans-Himalayan language spoken by approximately 60,000 people in Central Arunachal Pradesh, Northeast India. Although many young Galo are increasingly using Arunachali Hindi as a primary mode of communication, Galo is still a vibrant language with a high percentage of fluent speakers and child learners. Galo community members are also very active in language documentation and development, under the patronage of the Galo Welfare Society and the Galo Language Development Committee. Working both independently and in partnership with Mark W. Post, Galo community members have produced a community orthography (notably, one which is capable of accurately representing a complex tone system), gained official state recognition for their language, gained approval for its use in school curricula in Arunachal Pradesh, produced language textbooks and other written materials, and published a large-scale dictionary from which this word has been excerpted.
Source: Galo-English Dictionary and field notes
Credit: Mark W Post, 'Ilww Rwbaa, 'Igoo Rwbaa, Miilww Xodu and Bomcak Rwbaa